Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Denmark, Estonia, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden, and less often the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, northern Germany, northern Belarus, and northwest Russia.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that is otherwise conventionally Eastern Europe and Western Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are “almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region”. A related United Nations paper adds that “every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct”.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include Italy, Spain, Greece, Portugal, Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, Gibraltar, Corsica, and Malta. It also often includes Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Slovenia, the East Thrace of European Turkey, and Cyprus, though these countries may fall under different regional definitions as well. Kosovo, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia are also often included despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean. Some definitions may also include mainland Southern France and Monaco, which are otherwise considered parts of Western Europe.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various definitions. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea.