The varied history of black/Afro-descended people in the Americas is an interesting subject to study.
In most countries, the black population is concentrated where there were originally plantations and where slaves went. On the other hand, Ecuador’s black population in Esmereldas came predominantly from a shipwreck of slaves meant to go to Panama, and those shipwrecked established a claimed republic.
The sources for this map all come from censuses or housing surveys. Subdivisions were used wherever possible.
“Black” is usually a self-identification, especially in Latin America. This map, therefore, is not a complete guide for the percents of dark-skinned people living in an area, but people who self-identify as black or African-descended, depending on the wording of the census for that country.
– U.S. Black Population by County (1990 – 2017)