Russia has a mostly continental climate because of its enormous size and remoteness from the Oceans. Most of the Russian territory is more than 400 kilometers (250 miles) from the ocean, and the center is 3,840 kilometers (2,386 mi) from the sea. Besides, Russia’s mountain chains, predominantly to the south and the east, prevent moderating temperatures from the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The European part of Russia and northern Siberia lack such topographic defend from cold arctic masses.
Most of Russia has four seasons: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The average annual temperature of almost all of Siberia is below freezing, and the average for most of European Russia is between 5 and 0°C (41 and 32°F). Under the control of the Pacific Ocean, the Far East of Russia has a monsoonal climate that changes the wind direction in summer and winter, distinctly changing temperatures.
The moderate oceanic climate of Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea is comparable to that of the American Northwest. On the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory (mainly the Sochi), there are territories with a subtropical climate.
Places in the world whose climates match with Russia
You can compare the climate of Russian cities with the climate of other cities in the world here.