World War 1 was the bloodiest war conflict in the history of humankind. The total number of military and civilian casualties in WWI is estimated to be about forty million. WW1 radically changed the world map.
The Treaty of Versailles was just one of several agreements negotiated at the end of WWI. The agreements resulted in new political borders and new nations.
As the map below shows, the postbellum treaties sliced old powerful empires into multiple small new countries, causing substantial area losses for the Central Powers and transforming the face of the European continent.
- The Austria-Hungarian Empire was disintegrated, and new countries were formed from its territory: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia.
- The Ottoman Empire lost much of its territory in the Middle East and southwest Asia. In the European continent, they kept just the country of Turkey.
- Poland, which had long been split between Russian Empire, German Empire, and Austria-Hungarian Empire, was restored.
- Russian Empire and Austria-Hungarian Empire ceded part of the territory to Poland and Romania.
- The new countries of Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia separated from the Russian Empire.
The United States had its own ideas about the territorial structure of Europe. Below is the American victory map of Europe 1918 made shortly after the end of World War 1, showing roughly what should be borders of new states.
Latest American victory map of Europe with probable changes in Nations boundaries
Explanation of Battle Lines Shown in Green on Map
A. Final Battle Line on Western Front (November 11, 1918).
B. Final Battle Line on Italian Front (November 11, 1918).
C. Final Battle Line on Balkan Front (November 5, 1918).
D. Final Battle Line in Turkey in Asia (October 31, 1918).
Key to National Changes:
1. Provinces of Alsace and Lorraine—taken from France by Germany in 1871; now returned to France.
2. Duchy of Luxemburg—to be free or joined to Belgium.
3. German Poland.
4. Russian Poland.
5. Galicia (or Austrian Poland)—to form the Republic of Poland.
6. Grand Duchy of Finland—annexed by Russia in 1809—now claiming to be the Independent Republic.
7, 8, 9, 10. The Russian Provinces of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and Lithuania—have been held by Germany since the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Will now become the Independent Republic or maybe returned later to a Federated Russia.
11. Greater Russia—now in chaos, but to be reconstructed.
12. Ukraine—formerly a part of Russia—now claiming independence. She may later return to Russia.
13. Province of Caucasus—formerly a part of Russia— now claiming independence.
14. Province of Armenia—to become a self-governing State free of Turkish control. This is a Christian country that was conquered and divided between Russia and Turkey in 1828. The Turks have massacred over 800,000 Armenians in the last four years.
15. Enlarged Roumania, to include Transylvania and Bessarabia. Transylvania was formerly a part of Hungary, and Bessarabia belonged to Russia, but Roumanians inhabit both.
16. Czechoslovakia—the home of the Czechs and north Slavs—formed the Provinces of Bohemia, and Moravia, which were formerly parts of Austria-Hungary. Population 8,755,000.
17. Hungary, which, shorn of Transylvania and Croatia, will probably form an Independent Nation.
18, 19 German-Austria, consisting of the Old Grand Duchy of Austria and Styria. These countries will probably be joined in Germany. They are inhabited by Germans and contain a population of over 7,000,000.
20. Bavaria—formerly the Kingdom of Germany—is now in rebellion and aiming to become a Republic. Population 6,887,000.
21, 22. Greater Sprhia—to form with the countries of Montenegro, Carniola, Croatia, Slavonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Dalmatia, a Serbian Republic—the home of the Jugo-Slavs (or south Slavs), with a population of over 8,000,000. Independence recognized All the above Provinces except Serbia and Montenegro were captured by Austria-Hungary from the Turks in 1879 and formally annexed by her in 1908.
23. Montenegro—a tiny independent Kingdom—but may join the Jugo-Slav Nation.
24. Italy Irredenta. This country, “Italy Unredeemed,” as the Italians call it, is settled by Italians, and Italy has long sought to wrest it from Austrian control. It now goes1, back’ to her.
25. European Turkey—about which the only certain thing is that it will not belong to Turkey when the final settlement is made. Greece is making a strong plea to have this territory ceded to her.
26. The region about Drama, Seres, and Kavala, to be returned to Greece by Bulgaria.
27. Palestine. For over 2,000 years in control of the infidels—it will now be liberated and protected by a League of Christian Nations.
28. Kazan Province declared the Independent Republic in April 1918 by the Congress of Peasants in that Province. Population 2,000,000, area 24,000 square miles.
29. The portion of Germany lying west of the River Rhine, which is to be held in military possession of the Allies until the carrying out by Germany of the peace terms to be agreed on.