World War 1 was the bloodiest war conflict in the history of humankind. The total number of military and civilian casualties in WWI is estimated to be about forty million. The WW1 radically changed the world map.
The new borders of Europe were drawn during the Paris Peace Conference.
The United States had its own ideas about the territorial structure of Europe. Below the American victory map of Europe 1918 made shortly after the end of World War 1, showing roughly what should be borders of new states.
Latest American victory map of Europe with probable changes in Nations boundaries
Explanation of Battle Lines Shown in Green on Map
A. Final Battle Line on Western Front (November 11, 1918).
B. Final Battle Line on Italian Front (November 11, 1918).
C. Final Battle Line on Balkan Front (November 5, 1918).
D. Final Battle Line in Turkey in Asia (October 31, 1918).
Key to National Changes:
1. Provinces of Alsace and Lorraine—taken from France by Germany in 1871; now returned to France.
2. Duchy of Luxemburg—to be free or joined to Belgium.
3. German Poland.
4. Russian Poland.
5. Galicia (or Austrian Poland)—to form the Republic of Poland.
6. Grand Duchy of Finland—annexed by Russia in 1809—now claiming to be the Independent Republic.
7, 8, 9, 10. The Russian Provinces of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and Lithuania—have been held by Germany since the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Will now become the Independent Republic or maybe returned later to a Federated Russia.
11. Greater Russia—now in chaos, but to be reconstructed.
12. Ukraine—formerly a part of Russia—now claiming independence. She may later return to Russia.
13. Province of Caucasus—formerly a part of Russia— now claiming independence.
14. Province of Armenia—to become a self-governing State free of Turkish control. This is a Christian country that was conquered and divided between Russia and Turkey in 1828. The Turks have massacred over 800,000 Armenians in the last four years.
15. Enlarged Roumania, to include Transylvania and Bessarabia. Transylvania was formerly a part of Hungary, and Bessarabia belonged to Russia, but Roumanians inhabit both.
16. Czechoslovakia—the home of the Czechs and north Slavs—to be formed of the Provinces of Bohemia, and Moravia, which was formerly parts of Austria-Hungary. Population 8,755,000.
17. Hungary, which, shorn of Transylvania and Croatia, will probably form an Independent Nation.
18, 19 German-Austria, consisting of the Old Grand Duchy of Austria and Styria. These countries will probably be joined in Germany. They are inhabited by Germans and contain a population of over 7,000,000.
20. Bavaria—formerly a Kingdom of Germany—now in rebellion and aiming to become a Republic. Population 6,887,000.
21, 22. Greater Sprhia—to form with the countries of Montenegro, Carniola, Croatia, Slavonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Dalmatia, a Serbian Republic—the home of the Jugo-Slavs (or south Slavs), with a population of over 8,000,000. Independence recognized All the above Provinces with the exception of Serbia and Montenegro were captured by Austria-Hungary from the Turks in 1879 and formally annexed by her in 1908.
23. Montenegro—a small independent Kingdom—but may join the Jugo-Slav Nation.
24. Italy Irredenta. This country, “Italy Unredeemed” as the Italians call it, is settled by Italians, and Italy has long sought to wrest it from Austrian control. It now goes1, back’ to her.
25. European Turkey—about which the only certain thing is that it will not belong to Turkey when the final settlement is made. Greece is making a strong plea to have this territory ceded to her.
26. The region about Drama, Seres, and Kavala, to be returned to Greece by Bulgaria.
27. Palestine. For over 2,000 years in control of the infidels—it will now be liberated and protected by a League of Christian Nations.
28. Kazan Province declared the Independent Republic April 1918, by the Congress of Peasants in that Province. Population 2,000,000. Area 24,000 square miles.
29. The portion of Germany lying west of the River Rhine, which is to be held in military possession of the Allies until the carrying out by Germany of the peace terms to be agreed on.