# Most Impressive Landforms in Each U.S. state

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The impressiveness of mountains and other landforms is inherently subjective. Regardless, two factors that universally contribute to the perceived impressiveness of a landform are its height and steepness. Height is a significant factor in defining impressiveness, but it’s not the only factor. For example, even though Mt. Elbert in Colorado (elevation: 4,399 meters or 14,432 ft) has a higher elevation than Grand Teton in Wyoming (elevation: 4199 meters or 13,776 ft), mountaineers can attest to Grand Teton looking considerably more impressive, as it rises much more steeply over the local landscape.

Moreover, a mountain with a high elevation may not necessarily rise much above its environs. For example, the high-elevation point in Kansas, Mount Sunflower, seems as flat as a pancake, and measures a miserable jut of only 4 feet (1.2 m).

Prominence also isn’t especially relevant when it comes to assessing impressiveness. For example, Grand Teton (prominence: 1,990 meters or 6,529 ft) has a remarkably lower prominence than Mt. Elbert (prominence: 2,765 meters or 9,072 ft), despite seeming more impressive. Ridge-like or cliff-like mountains such as Lone Pine Peak in the Eastern Sierra (prominence: 129 meters or 423 feet) may have a very low prominence, despite the remarkable rise of thousands of meters in just a few kilometers over the neighboring Owens Valley.

In light of these considerations, **Kai Xu** created jut, a measure of the impressiveness of a mountain that accounts for both height and steepness.

According to him, the jut of point ** p** is the maximum angle-reduced height of

**above any point on the planetary surface. Jut estimates how impressively a point rises above its surroundings, estimating height and steepness. A point with a jut of**

*p***meters is interpreted to rise as impressively as a vertical cliff that is**

*x***meters tall. For example, a vertical cliff of height x, a 45° cone of height 1.41x, and a 30° cone of height 2x would all estimate a jut of x and be regarded as equally impressive. Detailed description of how jut works you can find here. Interactive map color-coded by jut created by**

*x***Kai Xu**presented is here.

Below is the map of the United States of the most imposing landform in each state, according to jut.

List of the highest-jut mountains in each U.S. state, as well as their corresponding base-to-peak height and base-to-peak steepness values* (Base-to-peak height (h) and base-to-peak steepness (θ) are correlated to jut through the following formula: jut = h × |sin θ|)*:

- Alaska:
**Denali (North Peak)**– jut: 8701 ft (rises 13765 ft at angle 39.2° above base) - Washington:
**Mt. Rainier (Pt. Success)**– jut: 4508 ft (rises 9182 ft at angle 29.4° above base) - Montana:
**Kinnerly Peak**– jut: 3850 ft (rises 5587 ft at angle 43.6° above base) - California:
**Half Dome**– jut: 3781 ft (rises 4717 ft at angle 53.3° above base) - Wyoming:
**Grand Teton**– jut: 3730 ft (rises 6105 ft at angle 37.7° above base) - Idaho:
**Dry Diggins Lookout**– jut: 3382 ft (rises 6499 ft at angle 31.4° above base) - Hawaii:
**Haupa‘akea Peak, Haleakalā**– jut: 3205 ft (rises 8385 ft at angle 22.5° above base) - Oregon:
**Mt. Hood**– jut: 3138 ft (rises 6791 ft at angle 27.5° above base) - Utah:
**Cascade Mtn.**– jut: 2861 ft (rises 5849 ft at angle 29.3° above base) - Arizona:
**Grand Canyon (Nankoweap)**– jut: 2766 ft (rises 3254 ft at angle 58.2° above base) - Colorado:
**Mt. Sopris**– jut: 2675 ft (rises 5267 ft at angle 30.5° above base) - Nevada:
**Mt. Wilson**– jut: 2250 ft (rises 2712 ft at angle 56° above base) - Texas:
**Guadalupe Peak**– jut: 2004 ft (rises 2935 ft at angle 43° above base) - New Mexico:
**Big Hatchet Peak**– jut: 1758 ft (rises 2849 ft at angle 38.1° above base) - New Hampshire:
**Mt. Willey**– jut: 1504 ft (rises 2886 ft at angle 31.4° above base) - Maine:
**Katahdin**– jut: 1399 ft (rises 2053 ft at angle 42.9° above base) - New York:
**Mt. Colvin**– jut: 1356 ft (rises 2107 ft at angle 40° above base) - North Carolina:
**Celo Knob**– jut: 1324 ft (rises 2712 ft at angle 29.2° above base) - Tennessee:
**Balsam Point, Mt. LeConte**– jut: 1279 ft (rises 2769 ft at angle 27.5° above base) - Vermont:
**Mt. Mansfield**– jut: 1207 ft (rises 2744 ft at angle 26.1° above base) - South Carolina:
**Table Rock**– jut: 984 ft (rises 1450 ft at angle 42.7° above base) - Virginia:
**Three Ridges**– jut: 870 ft (rises 2354 ft at angle 21.7° above base) - Massachusetts:
**Mount Greylock**– jut: 835 ft (rises 1729 ft at angle 28.9° above base) - South Dakota:
**Little Crow Peak**– jut: 794 ft (rises 1611 ft at angle 29.5° above base) - Georgia:
**Brasstown Bald**– jut: 781 ft (rises 2026 ft at angle 22.7° above base) - Kentucky:
**Mtn. Near Louellen**– jut: 777 ft (rises 1789 ft at angle 25.8° above base) - West Virginia:
**Grandview**– jut: 747 ft (rises 1296 ft at angle 35.2° above base) - Pennsylvania:
**Houselander Mtn.**– jut: 713 ft (rises 1345 ft at angle 32° above base) - New Jersey:
**Mt. Tammany**– jut: 686 ft (rises 1118 ft at angle 37.8° above base) - Maryland:
**Roundtop Hill**– jut: 629 ft (rises 952 ft at angle 41.3° above base) - Arkansas:
**Mt. Magazine**– jut: 578 ft (rises 1812 ft at angle 18.6° above base) - Oklahoma:
**Sugar Loaf Mtn.**– jut: 561 ft (rises 1816 ft at angle 18° above base) - Minnesota:
**Mt. Josephine**– jut: 423 ft (rises 645 ft at angle 40.9° above base) - Connecticut:
**Pine Ledge (Kent)**– jut: 396 ft (rises 699 ft at angle 34.5° above base) - Alabama:
**Bald Rock, Cheaha Mtn.**– jut: 384 ft (rises 1027 ft at angle 22° above base) - Nebraska:
**N. Overlook, Scotts Bluff**– jut: 366 ft (rises 523 ft at angle 44.4° above base) - Ohio:
**Bluff Near Dilles Bottom**– jut: 326 ft (rises 596 ft at angle 33.2° above base) - Illinois:
**Inspiration Point**– jut: 282 ft (rises 455 ft at angle 38.4° above base) - Michigan:
**Mt. Bohemia**– jut: 271 ft (rises 823 ft at angle 19.2° above base) - North Dakota:
**Bluff Near Amidon**– jut: 267 ft (rises 414 ft at angle 40° above base) - Wisconsin:
**Grandad Bluff**– jut: 266 ft (rises 423 ft at angle 38.9° above base) - Missouri:
**Cardareva Bluff**– jut: 265 ft (rises 532 ft at angle 29.8° above base) - Iowa:
**Bluff Near Madigan Winery**– jut: 262 ft (rises 376 ft at angle 44.2° above base) - Indiana:
**Bluff Near Madison**– jut: 242 ft (rises 422 ft at angle 35° above base) - Mississippi:
**Hill Near Fort Adams**– jut: 117 ft (rises 249 ft at angle 28° above base) - Kansas:
**Hill Near Manhattan**– jut: 115 ft (rises 323 ft at angle 20.9° above base) - Rhode Island:
**Diamond Hill**– jut: 101 ft (rises 263 ft at angle 22.5° above base) - Louisiana:
**Lone Grave Bluff**– jut: 91 ft (rises 114 ft at angle 53° above base) - Florida:
**Mt. Trashmore**– jut: 45 ft (rises 179 ft at angle 14.7° above base) - Delaware:
**Iron Hill**– jut: 29 ft (rises 285 ft at angle 5.8° above base)

### Interesting facts about jut:

- Denali’s North Peak (jut: 8701 ft) estimates a higher jut than Mount Everest (jut: 7254 ft). But the highest jut on the planet goes to Annapurna Fang (11,139 ft), a sub-peak of the Annapurna Range in the Nepalese Himalayas. Close runner-ups include other mounts with huge faces, such as Nanga Parbat, Dhaulagiri, Machapuchare, Gyala Peri, Annapurna II, and Rakaposhi.
- Even though the Colorado Rockies have some of the highest elevations in the Lower 48, they estimate a lower jut than some other Western mountain ranges (Cascades, Sierra, etc.), as they rise from a high plateau. In comparison, the Alps and Canadian Rockies estimate about 2.5 times the jut of the Colorado Rockies, despite having a somewhat equal elevation.
- Jut on other planets and asteroids can considerably surpass those on Earth. The massive Valles Marineris canyon on Mars measures jut values surpassing 11,500 ft, and the Vesta and Rheasilvia rocky bodies measure jut values surpassing 30,000 ft.

To learn more about mountains and scenic trails of national parks of the United States you may be interested in the following books:

- National Geographic Complete National Parks of the United States
- Highpoints of the United States: A Guide to the Fifty State Summits
- State Highpoints Map Poster

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DD